SUPPLY CHAIN

Supply Chain Management (SCM) adalah koordinasi dari bahan, informasi dan arus keuangan antara perusahaan yang berpartisipasi. SCM bisa juga berarti seluruh jenis kegiatan komoditas dasar hingga penjualan produk akhir ke konsumen untuk mendaur ulang produk yang sudah dipakai.

Arus material melibatkan arus produk fisik dari pemasok sampai konsumen melalui rantai, sama baiknya dengan arus balik dari retur produk, layanan, daur ulang dan pembuangan. Arus informasi meliputi ramalan permintaan, transmisi pesanan dan laporan status pesanan, arus ini berjalan dua arah antara konsumen akhir dan penyedia material mentah. Arus keuangan meliputi informasi kartu kredit, syarat-syarat kredit, jadwal pembayaran dalam penetapan kepemilikandan pengiriman. (Kalakota, 2000, h198)

Menurut Turban, Rainer, Porter (2004, halaman 321), terdapat 3 macam komponen rantai suplai, yaitu :

  1. Supply Chain Upstream / Upstream supply chain Section upstream (upstream) supply chain includes the activities of a manufacturing company with the distribution (which can manufacture, assembler, or both) and connect them to the retailer and they (dealers’ second-trier) , Relations dealers can be extended to several strata, all the way from the source material (eg ore, plant growth). In the upstream supply chain, whose main activity is procurement.
  2. Internal Supply Chain Management / Internal supply chain management Part of the internal supply chain includes all the work of putting the goods into the warehouse used in transforming inputs from suppliers into the organization’s output. It extends from the input time of entry into the organization. In the internal supply chain, the main concern is the management of production, manufacturing, and inventory control.
  3. Downstream Segment Supply Chain / Downstream supply chain segment Downstream (estuary) supply chain includes all activities that involve the delivery of products to end customers. In the downstream supply chain, attention is directed to the distribution, warehousing, transportation, and after-sales-service.

Sumber : Wikipedia Indonesia